Some exceptions: -style, -elect, -free, -based. Rule 1. Find out more in a Bitesize 2nd level English and literacy guide. Compounds in which the base word is. Rule 6: A hyphen may be used between a prefix and a … My grandson and my granduncle never met. When you use two words together as a single thought describing or modifying a noun and you put them before the noun, you should hyphenate them. This rule applies only to adverbs. Examples: Hyphens in Compound Adjectives The words in a compound adjective (a single adjective made up of two or more words) can be linked together by hyphens to show they are one grammatical unit (i.e., one multi-word adjective). My great-great-grandfather fought in the Civil War. In short, a hyphen links words together. Remember not to use spaces around hyphens. In describing family relations, great requires a hyphen, but grand becomes part of the word without a hyphen. If it appears before the word it modifies, include a hyphen. Hyphens are often used to tell the ages of people and things. (Because years is plural. Moreover, different manuals of style have different rules for using hyphens. Don't guess; have a dictionary close by, or look it up online. Otherwise just use what 'looks right.' Rule 3. Correct: a family-owned cafe. It looks like you have JavaScript turned off. When a compound adjective follows a noun, a hyphen is usually not necessary. Without the hyphen, the sentence seems to say that Springfield is a dreary place. It connects two words into a compound word. Note: Most publishers use the slightly longer en dash instead of a hyphen in this situation. Rule 5. I am going to re-cover the sofa. Hyphens are often used to tell the ages of people and things. Hyphens are shorter than dashes and are used to connect words. Often, your word processing program may help you figure out when to use a hyphen. If a word at the end of a line already has a hyphen, try to break the word at that punctuation mark rather than introducing another one. Hyphens are shorter than dashes and are used to connect words. Other style guides, such as The Chicago Manual of Style (CMOS), use an en dash without spaces instead. Here is how to type an en dash: On a PC, hold down the ALT key and type 0150 on the numeric keypad located on the far right of the keyboard. With the hyphen, little-town becomes a compound adjective, making the writer's intention clear: Springfield is a charming small town. Answer. It’s longer than a hyphen and is commonly used to indicate a range or a pause. Make note of words which are written with a hyphen and build up a list you can refer to for reference. Use a hyphen with prefixes. But do not hyphenate fractions introduced with a or an. You’ll use hyphens in a number of different circumstances, but the reason remains the same. Here, small-town is used as an adjective even though it contains a noun (town). However, other editors prefer hyphenating all compound modifiers, even those with low risk of ambiguity. When they come directly before a noun, they’re known as compound modifiers and usually have a hyphen, like “noise-canceling headphones.” Here are a few more examples: They had a long-term relationship. Examples: semi-invalid; inter-related; 6. There are two commandments about this misunderstood punctuation mark. (Or day, week, month, etc.). Still, many readers would scratch their heads for a moment over danceathon and eelesque. Rule 2. (The words in the compound adjective "three-page" are linked with a hyphen to show they are part of the same adjective.) In the first sentence, we used a hyphen, while the same is not right for the second sentence. Rule 6. It’s also important to distinguish between dashes and hyphens. 2 A 45-day drought damaged the soybean crops.. They can also be used to indicate an unfinished number range. an ice cream cone ], Apostrophe (‘) or (’) Useful Apostrophe Rules with Examples. Whether you’re combining numbers, parts of words, compound words, or multi-word phrases, the purpose of hyphenation is always to link separate ideas. Rule 8b. For example, the noun scandal can be made into the adjective scandalous by adding the suffix ous. mid-July. What is a hyphen? Incorrect: 300 - 325 people Examples: Some familiar phrases may require hyphens. For clarity, writers often hyphenate when the last letter in the root word is the same as the first letter in the suffix. 1.The reporter was complimented on his hard hitting expose Hyphenate Numerals with Units of Time before Nouns. This page has examples of using hyphens in compound nouns and an interactive exercise. Queen Victoria throne-sat for six decades. The slacker video-gamed his way through life. 3:15-3:45 p.m. Correct: The sign is five and one-half feet long. If you don’t know what compound modifier is … 10 Simple Rules for Using Hyphen “-” (With Sample Sentences) Read More » Would love your thoughts, please comment. Examples: 1. Confusing: She had a concealed weapons permit. a high-school senior Note that when hyphens are involved in expressing ages, two hyphens are required. Although the preceding hyphens help clarify unusual terms, they are optional and might not be every writer's choice. Chocolate-covered 2. Use a hyphen with a prefix to clarify a word. Hyphens - English Grammar Today - a reference to written and spoken English grammar and usage - Cambridge Dictionary 5. A hyphen is “a short line (-) used to connect the parts of a compound word or the parts of a word divided for any purpose.” To type a hyphen just use the key after the 0 on your keyboard. They show where a word is to be divided at the end of a line of writing. Hyphens are used to make reading a word easier, and sometimes words that started out as hyphenated will eventually become a single word. Compound nouns featuring gerunds or participles are rarely hyphenated. It’s not interchangeable with other types of dashes. If after, omit the hyphen. 4.since the first one was a failure we should recreate the experiment. Find out more in a Bitesize KS2 English guide. The hyphen is the shortest of the three horizontal marks that may be used in the middle of a sentence. But do not hesitate to hyphenate a rare usage if it avoids confusion. Examples: President-elect mayor-elect. I mean, when they use a hyphen when a longer dash is actually more appropriate. is a letter or set of letters placed before a root word. Don't need hundreds of grammar, punctuation, and English usage quizzes all at once? With no hyphen, we can only guess: Was the weapons permit hidden from sight, or was it a permit for concealed weapons? Dashes are used as punctuation in sentences. ex-mayor If your compound connects one word to two, use an en dash (–) in place of a hyphen. When writing out numbers with fractions, hyphenate only the fractions unless the construction is a compound adjective. If you would like a regular serving of grammar-related awesomeness every day, go follow her on Twitter. thirty-two children the annual dance-athon Video gamer is clear without a hyphen, although some writers might prefer to hyphenate it. ), Exception: The child is one year old. Mayor-elect Smith Remembering Jane Straus | May 18, 1954—February 25, 2011 | Author of the original Blue Book of Grammar and Punctuation. The document comprises 40 pages. Hyphens' main purpose is to glue words together. The Toyota Camry is one of the best-selling cars in the world. It becomes the verb scandalize by adding the suffix ize. Modernist-style paintings Examples: Rule 10. #thisjustgotweird. Do not hyphenate proper nouns of more than one word when they are used as compound adjectives. It’s not like a simple dash or something. Rule 2b. For example:Don’t hyphenate two-word descriptions if the first word ends in -ly: Em dash, en dash and hyphen. But long dashes aren’t just show-offs. However, hyphenate most double last names. Random Popular Latest. state-of-the-art design. This is mostly a clarification of Ex-user's answer. place a hyphen where needed in the following sentences More Comics. In many cases, you can use this punctuation mark or omit it, but always use a hyphen with “ex-” and “self-.”. Rule 9b. Some people join their surnames with a hyphen to create a new surname upon marriage. Hyphenate all spelled-out fractions. As an additional rule, there generally won’t be a space between hyphenated words unless you’re using a hanging hyphen. Examples: Incorrect: 300—325 people Hyphens are also commonly used to divide words that fall at the end of a line of text and continue on the next line. all-knowing. When used predicatively (usually after the verb to be), compound adjectives are not usually hyphenated. Hyphens with Numbers . Learn how and when to use a hyphen (-) with useful punctuation rules and example sentences. Material created by Jane Straus and GrammarBook.com. Example: I will recover from my illness. In the previous posts in this series (Part 1, Part 2, and Part 3), we discussed the general principles of hyphenation, as describe in much more detail on pages 97–100 of the Publication Manual.General Principle 1 (from p. 98) says “If a compound adjective can be misread, use a hyphen.” Often words with a prefix or suffix will use this mark to separate the prefix or suffix from the root word. When in doubt, look it up. The hyphen is not a dash, and cannot be substituted by or for one. A hyphen (-) is used to connect two words that function as a particular concept, or when linked together form a particular modifier. More than one-third of registered voters oppose the measure. trans-American Omitting the hyphen would cause confusion with repress. Use a hyphen when two or more words are used as a single expression (noun). Short dashes — technically, en dashes — aren’t as showy as their wider cousins, but they’re still useful. Examples: En dashes connect continuing numbers, such as dates, times and pages. Also use hyphens for. Moreover, different manuals of style have different rules for using hyphens.

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